DOBRO DOŠLI U SARAJEVO bosanska kahvana kod braće Kreševljaković


Free Palestine: example of "israeli efforts in peace process"


Pragmatic witness: BLOGGERS’ RIGHTS


bloggersOne of EFF’s goals is to give you a basic roadmap to the legal issues you may confront as a blogger to let you know you have rights and to encourage you to blog freely with the knowledge that your legitimate speech is protected. To that end we have created the Legal Guide for Bloggers a collection of blogger-specific FAQs addressing everything from fair use to defamation law to workplace whistle-blowing.

In addition EFF continues to battle for bloggers’ rights in the courtroom:

Bloggers can be journalists (and journalists can be bloggers).
We’re battling for legal and institutional recognition that if you engage in journalism you’re a journalist with all of the attendant rights privileges and protections. (See Apple v. Does.)

Bloggers are entitled to free speech.
We’re working to shield you from frivolous or abusive threats and lawsuits. Internet bullies shouldn’t use copyright libel or other claims to chill your legitimate speech. (See OPG v. Diebold.)

Bloggers have the right to political speech.
We’re working with a number of other public-interest organizations to ensure that the Federal Election Commission (FEC) doesn’t gag bloggers’ election-related speech. We argue that the FEC should adopt a presumption against the regulation of election-related speech by individuals on the Internet and interpret the existing media exemption to apply to online media outlets that provide news reporting and commentary regarding an election — including blogs. (See our joint comments to the FEC [PDF 332K].)

Bloggers have the right to stay anonymous.
We’re continuing our battle to protect and preserve your constitutional right to anonymous speech online including providing a guide to help you with strategies for keeping your identity private when you blog. (See How to Blog Safely (About Work or Anything Else).)

Bloggers have freedom from liability for hosting speech the same way other web hosts do.
We’re working to strengthen Section 230 liability protections under the Communications Decency Act (CDA) while spreading the word that bloggers are entitled to them. (See Barrett v. Rosenthal.)

If you’d like to spread the word about our work consider adding an EFF Bloggers’ Rights Badge to your blog or website.


bloggersOne of EFF’s goals is to give you a basic roadmap to the legal issues you may confront as a blogger to let you know you have rights and to encourage you to blog freely with the knowledge that your legitimate speech is protected. To that end we have created the Legal Guide for Bloggers a collection of blogger-specific FAQs addressing everything from fair use to defamation law to workplace whistle-blowing.

In addition EFF continues to battle for bloggers’ rights in the courtroom:

Bloggers can be journalists (and journalists can be bloggers).
We’re battling for legal and institutional recognition that if you engage in journalism you’re a journalist with all of the attendant rights privileges and protections. (See Apple v. Does.)

Bloggers are entitled to free speech.
We’re working to shield you from frivolous or abusive threats and lawsuits. Internet bullies shouldn’t use copyright libel or other claims to chill your legitimate speech. (See OPG v. Diebold.)

Bloggers have the right to political speech.
We’re working with a number of other public-interest organizations to ensure that the Federal Election Commission (FEC) doesn’t gag bloggers’ election-related speech. We argue that the FEC should adopt a presumption against the regulation of election-related speech by individuals on the Internet and interpret the existing media exemption to apply to online media outlets that provide news reporting and commentary regarding an election — including blogs. (See our joint comments to the FEC [PDF 332K].)

Bloggers have the right to stay anonymous.
We’re continuing our battle to protect and preserve your constitutional right to anonymous speech online including providing a guide to help you with strategies for keeping your identity private when you blog. (See How to Blog Safely (About Work or Anything Else).)

Bloggers have freedom from liability for hosting speech the same way other web hosts do.
We’re working to strengthen Section 230 liability protections under the Communications Decency Act (CDA) while spreading the word that bloggers are entitled to them. (See Barrett v. Rosenthal.)

If you’d like to spread the word about our work consider adding an EFF Bloggers’ Rights Badge to your blog or website.


Freedom and justice For Gaza: Boycott action against 7 complicit companies

Freedom and justice For Gaza: Boycott action against 7 complicit companies Posted on July 25, 2014 by Palestinian BDS National Committee Israel’s regime of occupation, settler-colonialism and apartheid is once again committing heinous massacres on the Palestinian people in Gaza. Israel enjoys criminal impunity because of the direct support from governments in the North America and Europe but also from corporations that are implicated in the Israeli occupation and egregious human rights violations. There are dozens of companies that play an active and ongoing role in facilitating Israeli apartheid. In light of the exceptionally bloody massacres Israel is currently committing in Gaza, the Palestinian BDS National Committee (BNC) suggests to BDS activists and every conscientious person and organization around the world to target the following 7 companies as a matter of urgency. READ MORE: Read our Get Involved page for more ideas on companies to boycott and ways to get involved in the Boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) movement 1. Hewlett Packard (HP) Protest at HP shareholders meeting calls for end to support for Israeli apartheid IT company Hewlett Packard is involved in various Israeli violations of international law through providing the Israeli occupation forces with a vast range of IT services and infrastructure solutions. This includes the operation of an ID system installed in Israeli military checkpoints in the occupied West Bank and Gaza, and the administration of the IT system of the Israeli Navy that enforces the naval blockade of Gaza and that is deeply involved in committing war crimes in the ongoing aggression on Gaza. By providing such significant support to the Israeli military, HP is an active accomplice to Israel’s siege on Gaza. That’s why the Presbyterian Church USA and the Quaker Friends Fiduciary Corporation (FFC) have divested from the company. Take action: - Boycott HP consumer products. Don’t buy HP laptops, printers or ink cartridges! - Sign the petition calling on HP CEO Meg Whitman to end the company’s collaboration with the Israeli military - Campaign for divestment from HP and for the company to be excluded from public contracts. Get in touch for ideas on how to get started. 2. Caterpillar Activists in the West Bank village of Ni'lin block a Caterpillar excavator used in the construction of the apartheid wall Caterpillar bulldozers are regularly used in the demolition of Palestinian homes and farms, and the Israeli army has used unmanned Caterpillar bulldozers in the 2008-09 attacks in Gaza. A CAT bulldozer was also used by Israel in killing US activist Rachel Corrie in Rafah in 2003. The Presbyterian Church USA, the Quaker Friends Fiduciary Corporation (FFC) and the Church of England have all divested from Caterpillar. Take action: - Boycott Caterpillar consumer products such as shoes, bags and tools! - Campaign for divestment from Caterpillar. Get in touch for ideas on how to get started. 3. SodaStream sodastreamspoof While not directly implicated in Israel’s on-going attack in Gaza, home drink carbonation machines produced by SodaStream are one of Israel’s most visible and widely advertised exports. Tax revenue from SodaStream sales help to fund Israel’s attack on Gaza. SodaStream operates in the illegal Israeli settlement of Maale Adumim in the occupied West Bank, and the company’s plan to open a factory inside Israel beside Rahat, a planned Palestinian Bedouin township in the Naqab (Negev) desert, amounts to participation in Israel’s plans to forcibly displace at least 40,000 Palestinian Bedouins into townships. John Lewis in the UK recently became the latest retailer to stop stocking SodaStream products and protests forced a SodaStream store in Brighton, UK, to close recently. The company’s share price has fallen by 50% in the past year, especially since a scandal over actor Scarlett Johansson’s association with the brand. Take action: - Boycott all SodaStream products and call on retailers not to stock them! - Organise a demonstration or flashmob at a retailer near you that sells SodaStream products. Check out Codepink’s action guide for ideas. 4. Elbit Systems Elbit Systems drones are used by Israel to attack civilians in Gaza Elbit Systems is Israel’s largest military company. It provides a wide range of equipment and services to the Israeli military, including surveillance equipment used in Israel’s illegal Wall and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), known as drones. Elbit Systems armed drones are widely used by the Israeli military and were documented as being used in attacks on unarmed civilians during the 2008-09 assault on Gaza. According to Palestinian human rights organization Al Mezan Center, armed drones killed more than 1,000 Palestinians in Gaza in the period 2000-2010. Palestinian and international human rights organisations have reported numerous attacks on Palestinians by drones during the current attack on Gaza. Elbit Systems xafss its drone technology across the world as ‘field tested’. Countries that have procured UAVs from Elbit include Australia, Canada, Croatia, France, Georgia, Mexico, Singapore, Sweden, the UK, Brazil and USA. The Norwegian sovereign wealth fund and more than a dozen European banks have divested from Elbit Systems. Take action: - Sign the call for a military embargo on Israel - Call on UK bank Barclays and on pension funds to divest from Elbit Systems 5. Israeli banks (including Hapoalim and Leumi) The Israeli military has conducted hundred of raids across the West Bank and launched dozens of attacks on Gaza. © Oren Ziv/ActiveStills © Oren Ziv/ActiveStills Israel’s private banks provide the financial infrastructure for all activities of companies, military bodies, governmental agencies and individuals in the continuing occupation of Palestinian and Syrian territory and provide significant financing to the construction of illegal Israeli settlements and the on-going colonisation of Palestinian land. Israeli banks have severed their contractual connections with the Palestinian banks in Gaza and stopped providing any and all services to them. Given the way in which the Palestinian economy is dominated by and dependent on the Israeli economy, this had a devastating impact on the local Gazan economy. A number of European pension funds including Dutch pension giant PGGM, the Luxembourg sovereign wealth fund and Denmark’s biggest bank Danske Bank have already divested from Israeli banks. Take Action: - Send a Tweet to Dutch Pension giant ABP calling on them to divest from Israeli banks that fund the Israel occupation and settlements - Campaign for your own pension fund or any institution you are a part of to divest from Israeli banks. Get in touch for ideas on how to get started. 6. G4S G4S is a British security company that provides a wide range of equipment and services g4s-securing-apartheid-140x300 (1)to the Israeli government and military including to Israeli checkpoints and to prisons where Palestinians, including many children, are held without trial and subjected to torture. G4S provides equipment used in Israeli-run checkpoints at the Erez crossing between occupied Gaza and Israel, thereby directly assisting Israel’s siege on Gaza. The international campaign against G4S has cost the company millions of dollars in contracts with universities, charities and other public bodies and has seen the Bill Gates Foundation, the United Methodist Church and others divest from the company. In response, G4S has recently claimed that it will end some aspects of its role in Israeli apartheid and has stated it intends to end its role in Israel’s prisons by 2017, yet the campaign against the company must continue until its complicity in Israeli apartheid verifiably comes to a complete end. Take action: - Add your name to the open letter calling on G4S to end its support for Israeli apartheid and colonialism - Campaign for your G4S to be excluded from public contracts. Get in touch for ideas on how to get started. 7. Mekorot Screen Shot 2014-07-25 at 14.54.48 Click to view a larger version of this infographic on Israel’s water apartheid Mekorot is Israel’s national water company and illegally appropriates Palestinian water, diverting it to illegal Israeli settlements and towns inside Israel, and imposes severe obstacles to Palestinians accessing their own water. Mekorot is part of the Israeli occupation complex that denies Palestinians access to their fair share of aquifers that should be shared between Israel and Gaza. Palestinian and international organisations in Gaza are warning that Gaza’s water crisis is being rapidly escalated by the on-going assault on Gaza. Mekorot is now seeking to export its discriminatory water practises and is bidding to take over water supplies all across the world as they are being privatised. Authorities in Argentina, Netherlands and Portugal have cancelled cooperation deals with Mekorot following BDS pressure. Take action: - Share this fact sheet on Mekorot - Campaign for Mekorot to be excluded from local authority contracts. Get in touch for more info and ideas READ MORE: Read our Get involved page for more ideas on companies to boycott and ways to get involved in the BDS movement - See more at:


vOX: Why are the US and Israel so friendly?

That's a hugely controversial question. Though American support for Israel really is massive, including billions of dollars in aid and reliable diplomatic backing, experts disagree sharply on why. Some possibilities include deep support for Israel among the American public, the influence of the pro-Israel lobby, and American ideological affinity with the Middle East's most stable democracy. The countries were not nearly so close in Israel's first decades. President Eisenhower was particularly hostile to Israel during the 1956 Suez War, which Israel, the U.K. and France fought against Egypt. As the Cold War dragged on, the US came to view Israel as a key buffer against Soviet influence in the Middle East and supported it accordingly. The American-Israeli alliance didn't really cement until around 1973, when American aid helped save Israel from a surprise Arab invasion. Since the Cold War, the foundation of the still-strong (and arguably stronger) relationship between the countries has obviously shifted. Some suggest that a common interest in fighting jihadism ties America to Israel, while others point to American leaders' ideological attachment to an embattled democracy. Perhaps the simplest explanation is that the American public has, for a long time, sympathized far more with Israel than Palestine: One very controversial theory, advanced by Professors John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, credits the relationship to the power of the pro-Israel lobby, particularly the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). Critics of this theory argue that AIPAC isn't as strong as Walt and Mearsheimer think. AIPAC's early 2014 failure to secure one its longstanding top priorities, new sanctions on Iran, underscored the critics' point. Regardless of the reasons for the "special relationship," American support for Israel really is quite extensive. The U.S. has given Israel $118 billion in aid over the years (about $3 billion per year nowadays). Half of all American UN Security Council vetoes ended resolutions critical of Israel.



By: Source: As Israel’s ongoing collective punishment of Palestinians and attacks on Gaza show, Israel will continue its belligerence and state terrorism unless it is made to pay a heavy price for its crimes against the Palestinian, Lebanese and other Arab peoples. Initiated by an overwhelming majority of Palestinian grassroots organisations in 2005 and inspired by the South African anti-apartheid movement, the boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) movement is now a widespread international movement. BDS is proving capable of winning mass support and persuading companies, cultural institutions, artists and governments to join or observe the boycott of Israel. The successes and growth of the global BDS movement has only been possible because of the creative and determined action by conscientious people and organizations and unions across the world. The BDS movement is supported and led by the Palestinian BDS National Committee (BNC), and we’ve put together this set of ideas on how to support in the BDS movement. Get involved today and help to build the international BDS movement against Israel’s regime of occupation, colonialism and apartheid. 1. Boycott goods of Israeli companies as well as international companies involved in Israel’s human rights violations The most basic step is to stop buying products and services of Israeli companies and, whenever feasible, of international companies involved in Israel’s human rights violations. Try to encourage your friends, family and community to join you in doing so. It differs from country to country, but the most common Israeli exports include: - fresh fruit and vegetables such as Jaffa citrus fruits and Israeli Medjoul Dates - Ahava cosmetics - SodaStream drinks machines - Eden Springs bottled water - Golan Heights Wineries and other Israeli wines There are many international companies that are complicit in Israeli violations of international law. Examples include HP, Caterpillar, Volvo, Hyundai, among many others. Trying to boycott the products of every single company that participates in Israeli apartheid is a daunting task that has a slim change of having a concrete impact. It makes more sense to focus on optimal targets that are being targeted as part of national or international campaigns. Consumer boycotts are most effective when part of a broader campaign against a particular product or aiming to pressure a retailer to stop selling a particular Israeli product. Get in contact with a BDS organisation in your area to find out what companies and products are being targeted and how to support local campaigns. If no such organization exists, start your own campaign, in coordination with well-recognized BDS organizations. 2. Follow us on social media and help spread the word There are new BDS successes and developments nearly every day. Help to magnify the impact of the BDS movement by following us on Twitter and Facebook and sharing news of BDS successes on social media. 3. Learn more and share information about the BDS movement Check out and consider sharing the pages in the Learn section of this website, including the Introduction to BDS, and the list of successes of the BDS movement since 2005. You can Tweet about the BDS movement and follow developments using the hashtag #BDS. 4. Get involved in your area There are vibrant organisations and campaigns in towns and cities all over the world that make an enormous contribution to boycott campaigns and the BDS movement as a whole. Enter your details into our Get involved with a local BDS campaign form to be put in touch with a nearby group and start getting involved in local campaigning today. 5. Take action online Online petitions and letter writing actions can be an important part of building pressure, especially when they are part of vibrant local campaigning too. Check out to find out about on-going online actions. If you have your own suggestions for BDS campaigns, please share them with us through email. 6. Campaign against your own community’s complicity in Israel’s violations of international law Israel is only able to maintain its occupation and apartheid system because of the massive, unconditional support it receives from international governments, companies and institutions, such as universities. Get in touch for ideas on how to research and campaign against links between your local community and the companies and institutions that enable Israel’s occupation and apartheid policies. Divesting pension or investment funds from companies involved in Israel’s human rights violations is a major component in many such campaigns. 7. Encourage an organisation you are a member of to endorse BDS All across the world, trade unions, student unions, NGOs, faith groups and other organisations are getting behind the BDS movement, launching their own BDS campaigns and divesting any shares they hold in Israeli companies or international companies such as Veolia, G4S and HP that are implicated in Israeli occupation and apartheid. Persuading a union or association that you are a member of to endorse the Palestinian civil society’s BDS call can be a long-term project but is a particularly effective way to reach large numbers of people and build mainstream support for the boycott movement. 8. Organise a boycott action at a retailer that sells Israeli goods Boycott actions such as a protest or creative flashmob can be a great way to build awareness and support for the boycott of Israel and to pressure a retailer to stop stocking a particular product or Israeli goods in general. Check out CODEPINK’s guide to organising a creative boycott action targeting Israeli cosmetics company Ahava. The guide works well for actions targeting other complicit products and companies too. 9. Share this list Help to inspire others to take action by sharing this list via social media.


Free Palestine: BOJKOT IZRAELA

Boycott Israel • 11 Brands You’ll Have To Let Go If You Want To Boycott Israel By Rehan Ahmed Concern for the people of Palestine has been growing worldwide, not just alone in the Muslim world. It has risen dramatically considering the horrific events that have happened this year in the State of Palestine. With the debate growing on how the masses can help, many intellectuals and political activists have said the best way is through boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS). The BDS campaign covers all Israeli products: It’s a broad tactic aimed to pressure the state itself to change. But it also reserves a special focus for companies that are actually involved in — and make hefty profits from occupation policies. These organizations may be forced to pay attention to the boycott very soon and they may not be the ones you’d expect! 1. Volvo Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: Bondin Rikard/ Flickr The automobile giant has been criticized by BDS campaigners for supplying equipment to bulldoze Palestinian homes. Interestingly enough, the Swedish automobile manufacturer also holds a 27% stake in Merkavim, whose buses are used to transport Palestinian prisoners to and from Israeli prisons. 2. Hewlett Packard Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: Yuffai Ooi/Flickr Hewlett Packard’s slogan is “If you’re going to do something, make it matter.” For Palestinians it definitely matters a lot. The tech giant owns EDS Israel, which supplies the computer systems for Israeli Defense Forces and produces hi-tech equipment like the Basel System, a biometric permit system that controls the movement of Palestinian workers through checkpoints in Gaza and the West Bank. HP equipment is also used by Israeli prisons and the army. If that is not enough the company has also invested in the technological development of illegal settlements, taking part in the Smart City Project in the town of Ariel. 3. Intel Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: Josh Bankroft/ Flickr Intel operates plants in Kiriyat Gat, site of the former Palestinian villages of Iraq al-Manshiya and Faluja. According to Israeli historian Benny Morris it was in the 1948-49 war that the residents of these villages were expelled, in line with Israel’s strategic plans. Intel, whose processors can be found in most of the world’s computers, has reportedly invested $2.7 billion to upgrade its Kiryat Gat plants where it is working on new chips that will make computers lighter and faster. That brings its total investments in Israel to about $10 billion, plus it has also benefited by more than $1 billion in the form of Israeli government grants. 4. Motorola Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: Theodor Lee/Flickr BDS supporters have targeted telecommunications giant Motorola for providing surveillance equipment around Israeli settlements, along the Israeli-built separation barrier and along the Israel-Gaza border. In addition to that, the American multinational has signed a $100 million deal this year with Israel for encrypted smartphones for its soldiers and security personnel. 5. McDonald’s Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: Dwight/ Flickr The largest fast food chain in the world has long been targeted by Pro-Palestinian groups for its longtime partnership with the Jewish United Fund. Through its Israel Commission, the Jewish United Fund “works to maintain American military, economic and diplomatic support for Israel; monitors and, when necessary, responds to media coverage of Israel” 6. Coca-Cola Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: Leo Hidalgo/Flickr The largest soft drinks manufacturer in the world that houses numerous carbonated drinks under its umbrella, including Sprite, Fanta and Schweppes amongst many others has been surrounded by many controversies over its supposed support of Israel. Amongst them include the fact that its Israeli subsidiary – Coca-Cola Israel owns dairy farms on occupied Israeli settlements of Shadmot Mechola in the Jordan Valley and a plant in the industrial zone of Katzerin on the occupied Golan Heights. Back in the year 2009 the company hosted a special reception at the Coca-Cola world headquarters to honor Brigadier-General Ben-Eliezer. Eliezer is claimed by Pro-Palestinian groups to be a war criminal, during the Six-Day War his unit was responsible for the execution of over 300 Egyptian POWs. Under Sharon, Ben-Eliezer served as the Defense Minister presiding over the massacre at Jenin. 7. Danone Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: logodatabases(dot)com Close to 2 decades ago Danone opened its R&D facility in Israel – the Danone Institute. Not that surprisingly enough the French company also owns a 20% share of Israel’s second largest food company, the Strauss Group. 8. Estee Lauder Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: famouslogos(dot)com The American Conglomerate, home to big brands such DKNY, Tommy Hilfiger, M.A.C, Clinique amongst many others has been targeted by BDS activists due to the pro-Israeli activities of its chairman, Ronald Lauder. Lauder is also the current president of the Jewish National Fund (JNF) – a quasi-governmental agency whose main function is to legitimize Israeli occupation of Palestinian land. In fact an American based group led a boycott in the country with their “Estée Slaughter” campaign. 9. Marks and Spencer Boycott Israeli Products Photo Credit: Tigger T Since its beginning M&S has been linked inextricably to Zionism. A book on M&S by Lord Marcus Sieff – long time Chairman of M&S – in it he cited that one of the fundamental objectives of M&S is to aid the economic development of Israel (Management: The Marks & Spencer Way, Weidenfield & Nicolson, 1990). As per an article in the Jerusalem Report dated 5/6/2000 M&S supports Israel with approximately $233 million in trade every year. Furthermore in 1998 Sir Richard Greenbury the CEO of Marks & Spencer, received the Jubilee Award by the Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu. This is the highest tribute ever awarded by the “State of Israel” in recognition of those individuals and organizations, that through their investments and trade relationships, have done the most to strengthen the Israeli economy. 10. Starbucks Photo Credit: Anton Zemskov/ Flickr Photo Credit: Anton Zemskov/ Flickr The close relationship of this brand with the state of Israel has been doing the rounds for quite sometime. They escalated when Howard Schultz an active Zionist – the founder, chairman, president and chief executive officer of Starbucks was honored by the Jerusalem Fund of Aish HaTorah with “The Israel 50th Anniversary Friend of Zion Tribute Award” for his services to the Zionist state in “playing a key role in promoting close alliance between the United States and Israel”. Starbucks proudly displayed the award on the company’s website under the section of ‘awards and accolades’ that the coffee giant has won, however, once the boycott started to bite, the award mysteriously disappeared from its website. 11. Nestle Photo Credit: Nestle/flickr Photo Credit: Nestle/flickr The Swiss multinational has a good share of controversies and criticism surrounding its big brand name. For Pro-Palestinians activists one of the main problems they had with the food and beverage company was the fact that it bought 51% shares in Osem investments in the mid 90′s. Osem Investments is an Israel based company that is directly engaged in the production and distribution of food products in Israel and abroad. Moreover in 1998, Peter Brabeck – the former CEO of Nestle received the Jubilee Award (the highest tribute offered by the state of Israel) in recognition of his company’s efforts to support the state of Israel. There are still many more brands whose actions we still remain unaware of, but this is a start. So if you feel for the people of Palestine, please share this message and educate the masses. Note that this is not a comprehensive list and the views expressed within this article are the personal opinions of the author. is not responsible for the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or validity of any information on this article. All information is provided on an as-is basis. The information, facts or opinions appearing in the article do not reflect the views of and does not assume any responsibility or liability for the same.


Bajram sherif mubarek olsun / Eid Mubarek

"Ovaj zemaljski svijet je karavan-saraj na putu ka Bogu; svi ljudi zajedno nalaze se u njemu kao saputnici. Međutim, pošto svi oni putuju prema istom cilju i, u neku ruku, obrazuju jednu karavanu, moraju međusobno održavati mir i slogu i uzajamno se pomagati, poštivajući svaki prava drugoga." - Imami Ebu Hamid El Gazali, "Naš učitelj El-Gazali"

Da nam dragi Bog pomogne da budemo od onih razumom obdarenih... od onih koji vole mir, slogu i pomaganje drugih, da nas učini od onih koji poštuju prava drugih i koji se ne boje braniti prava slabijih,  da pomogne pravedne protiv nepravednih, dobre protiv zlih, pametne protiv glupih, da nam podari da nas vode najbolji i najpravedniji od nas, da naša srca ispuni ljubavlju prema Njemu i svim Njegovim stvorenjima...da nas pomogne da pobjedimo naše slabosti, da nas pomogne da budemo suosjećajniji prema ugroženim, da ljubav prema njemu bude naše oružje protiv mržnje...da na daruje što je najbolje za nas i da budemo od onih kojim je On zadovoljan...




Free Palestine: Arendt: Born in conflict, Israel will degenerate into Sparta, and American Jews will need to back away

Arendt: Born in conflict, Israel will degenerate into Sparta, and American Jews will need to back away

Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt

For the new year, here are some prophetic excerpts from two essays of Hannah Arendt’s, collected in The Jewish Writings (2007). Please note her predictions of the Nakba, of unending conflict, of Zionist dependence on the American Jewish community, of ultimate conflict with that American Jewish community, and the contribution of political Zionism to world anti-semitism. Just what Howard Gutman said recently. For which he was denounced by– Zionists.

Zionism Reconsidered, 1944:

Nationalism is bad enough when it trusts in nothing but the rude force of the nation. A nationalism that necessarily and admittedly depends upon the force of a foreign nation is certainly worse. This is the threatened state of Jewish nationalism and of the proposed Jewish state, surrounded inevitably by Arab states and Arab people. Even a Jewish majority in Palestine–nay even a transfer of all Palestine’s Arabs, which is openly demanded by the revisionists–would not substantially change a situation in which Jews must either ask protection from an outside power against their neighbors or come to a working agreement with their neighbors…

[T]he Zionists, if they continue to ignore the Mediterranean people and watch out only for the big faraway powers, will appear only as their tools, the agents of foreign and hostile interests. Jews who know their own history should be aware that such a state of affairs will inevitably lead to a new wave of Jew-hatred; the antisemitism of tomorrow will assert that Jews not only profiteered from the presence of foreign big powers in that region but had actually plotted it and hence are guilty of the consequences…

[T]he sole new piece of historical philosophy which the Zionists contributed out of their own new experiences [was] “A nation is a group of people…  held together by a common enemy” (Herzl)–an absurd doctrine…

To such [political] independence, it was believed, the Jewish nation could arrive under the protecting wings of any great power strong enough to shelter its growth…. the Zionists ended by making the Jewish national emancipation entirely dependent upon the material intersts of another nation.

The actual result was a return of the new movement to the traditional methods of shtadlonus [court Jews], which the Zionists once had so bitterly despised and violently denounced. Now Zionists too knew no better place politically than the lobbies of the powerful, and no sounder basis for agreements than their good services as agents of foreign interests…

[O]nly folly could dictate a policy which trusts a distant imperial power for protection, while alienating the goodwill of neighbors. What then, one is prompted to ask, will be the future policy of Zionism with respect to big powers, and what program will Zionists have to offer for a solution of the Arab-Jewish conflict?…

If a Jewish commonwealth is obtained in the near future–with or without partition–it will be due to the political influence of American Jews…. But if the Jewish commonwealth is proclaimed against the will of the Arabs and without the support of the Mediterranean peoples, not only financial help but political support will be necessary for a long time to come. And that may turn out to be very troublesome indeed for Jews in this country [the U.S.], who after all have no power to direct the political destinies of the Near East. It may eventually be far more of a responsibility than today they imagine or tomorrow can make good.

To Save the Jewish Homeland, 1948 [on the occasion of war in Palestine]

And even if the Jews were to win the war, its end would find the unique possibilities and the unique achievements of Zionism in Palestine destroyed. The land that would come into being would be something quite other than the dream of world Jewry, Zionist and non-Zionist. The ‘victorious’ Jews would live surrounded by an entirely hostile Arab population, secluded into ever-threatened borders, absorbed with physical self-defense to a degree that would submerge all other interests and acitvities. The growth of a Jewish culture would cease to be the concern of the whole people; social experiments would have to be discarded as impractical luxuries; political thought would center around military strategy…. And all this would be the fate of a nation that — no matter how many immigrants it could still absorb and how far it extended its boundaries (the whole of Palestine and Transjordan is the insane Revisionist demand)–would still remain a very small people greatly outnumbered by hostile neighbors.

Under such circumstances… the Palestinian Jews would degenerate into one of those small warrior tribes about whose possibilities and importance history has amply informed us since the days of Sparta. Their relations with world Jewry would become problematical, since their defense interests might clash at any moment with those of other countries where large number of Jews lived. Palestine Jewry would eventually separate itself from the larger body of world Jewry and in its isolation develop into an entirely new people. Thus it becomes plain that at this moment and under present circumstances a Jewish state can only be erected at the price of the Jewish homeland…

One grim addendum. In the heyday of the special relationship between the US and Israel, American Jewry felt itself to be one with the Israeli people. We Are One! declared Melvin Urofsky’s book of 1978. That unity is today being dissolved. The haredi-secular conflict in Israel that is getting so much attention here is one means of that dissolution. And the aim, unconsciously, may be a desire by American Jews to distance themselves from Israeli Jews so that when the Arab Spring at last brings a democratic movement to Israel and Palestine, and bloody conflict ensues, and the Israeli gov’t is cast as the bad guys, American Jews are emotionally prepared to regard the bloodshed as inevitable and not their problem.

About Philip Weiss

Philip Weiss is Founder and Co-Editor of

Free Palestine: sa bloga ambient-palestine koji preporučujemo

utorak, siječanj 23, 2007
Ovaj članak napisao je Ilan Pappe, izraelski povjesničar i profesor političkih znanosti sa Sveučilišta u Haifi. Članak sadrži odlomke iz njegove najnovije knjige Etničko čišćenje u Palestini (The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, Oneworld Publications, Oxford, England) i stavlja naglasak na sistematske pripreme za protjerivanje više od 750 000 Palestinaca s područja koje je 1948. godine postalo država Izrael, a posebno na projekt "Village Files" (Spisi o selima) (1940-1947) koji je uključivao sistematsko prikupljanje karti i podataka o svakom arapskom selu, te razradu -- pod vodstvom unutarnjeg kruga od oko desetak ljudi predvođenih Davidom Ben-Gurionom – niza vojnih planova koji su kulminirali Planom Dalet, a prema kojem se vodio rat iz 1948. Jedan od glavnih autorovih ciljeva je dokazati da je umjesto paradigme rata kao osnovu znanstvenog istraživanja i javne rasprave potrebno uzeti paradigmu etničkog čišćenja.

Ilan Pappe je autor brojnih knjiga, uključujući The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947–1951 (I.B. Tauris, 1994) i A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Ilan Pappe

BILO JE HLADNO POSLIJEPODNE TE SRIJEDE 10. ožujka 1948. kad je skupina od 11 ljudi, cionističkih vođa i mladih židovskih časnika, dovršila plan etničkog čišćenja Palestine. Te večeri, poslane su naredbe jedinicama na terenu da se pripreme za sistematsko protjerivanje Palestinaca iz velikog dijela Palestine. Naredbe su sadržavale detaljan opis metoda za prisilno istjerivanje stanovništva: zastrašivanje, opsade i bombardiranje sela i naseljenih središta; paljenje domova, imovine i dobara; izbacivanje stanara i uništavanje domova; i, konačno, postavljanje mina u ruševine kako se izbačeni stanari uništenih domova ne bi vratili. Svaka je jedinica dobila svoj popis sa selima i četvrtima koje su trebali obraditi. Plan D (Dalet na hebrejskom) bilo je tajno ime ove četvrte i posljednje verzije prijašnjih planova koji su se ticali sudbine domaćeg stanovništva u Palestini. Prijašnja tri plana nejasno su ocrtavali što cionističko vodstvo namjerava učiniti s tolikim Palestincima na zemlji koju je židovski nacionalni pokret želio prisvojiti. Ova posljednja verzija jasno i nedvosmisleno pokazuje: Palestinci su morali otići.

Plan, koji obuhvaća i ruralne i urbane dijelove Palestine, bio je neizbježan rezultat cionističkih ideoloških težnji za isključivim židovskim prisustvom u Palestini i reakcija na razvoj događaja na terenu nakon što je Velika Britanija u veljači 1947. odlučila okončati svoju vladavinu u Palestini i taj problem prebaciti na Ujedinjene Narode. Sukobi s lokalnim palestinskim milicijama, posebno nakon rezolucije UN-a o podjeli Palestine u studenom 1947, pružile su savršeno okruženje i izgovor da se provede ideološka vizija etnički očišćene Palestine.

Nakon što je Plan dovršen, izvršenje misije trajalo je 6 mjeseci. Po njenom završetku više od polovice domaćeg stanovništva Palestine, više od 750 000 ljudi, protjerano je sa svojih ognjišta, 531 selo je uništeno, a 11 urbanih četvrti je ispražnjeno. Plan o kojem se odlučivalo 10. ožujka 1948, a nadasve njegova sustavna provedba u mjesecima koji su uslijedili, jasan su primjer operacije etničkog čišćenja.



Čak i u rijetkim slučajevima kad se priznaje izraelska odgovornost za nestanak polovice arapskog stanovništva Palestine (službena vladina verzija i dalje odbija prihvatiti bilo kakvu odgovornost, i inzistira da je lokalno stanovništvo "dobrovoljno" napustilo teritorij), uobičajeno objašnjenje je da je njihov bijeg nesretna, ali neizbježna nuspojava rata. No, ono što se dogodilo u Palestini ni u kojem slučaju nije bila nenamjerna posljedica, slučajnost, pa čak ni "čudo", kako je kasnije proglasio prvi izraelski predsjednik Chaim Weitzmann , već je to bio rezultat dugotrajnog i pažljivog planiranja.

Kako su znanstvenici kasnije otkrili, mogućnosti da Židovi u budućnosti preuzmu Palestinu i protjerivanje autohtonog Palestinskog stanovništva prisutni su u zapisima utemeljitelja Cionizma. No, cionistički vođe su tek potkraj 1930-tih počeli svoju apstraktnu viziju židovske isključivosti pretvarati u konkretnije planove. [...] geografski prostor koji je [židovski nacionalni] pokret želio zaposjesti mijenjao se ovisno o okolnostima i povoljnim prilikama, no glavni cilj ostao je isti: stvaranje čiste židovske države u Palestini, koja će biti sigurno sklonište za Židove, ali i kolijevka novog židovskog nacionalizma. A ta je država morala biti isključivo židovska, ne samo po svojoj društveno-političkoj strukturi, već i po svom etničkom sastavu.

Iz međusobnih razgovora, dnevnika i privatne korespondencije najvišeg vodstva vidljivo je da su čelnici bili vrlo dobro upoznati s implikacijama te isključivosti. Ben-Gurion npr. 1937. piše u pismu svom sinu: "Arapi će morati otići, ali potrebno je da se to dogodi u prikladnom trenutku, kao npr. za vrijeme rata." [...]

Cionistički pokret pod vodstvom Ben-Guriona nije gubio vrijeme i pripremao se za slučaj da će zemlju morati osvajati silom ukoliko je ne bi uspjeli dobiti diplomatskim putem. Te su pripreme uključivale stvaranje učinkovite vojne organizacije i pronalaženje izvora većih financijskih sredstvava (koja su tražili od židovske dijaspore). [...]

Glavna paravojna organizacija židovske zajednice u Palestini osnovana je 1920. prvenstveno kako bi branila židovske kolonije izgrađene između palestinskih sela. Zahvaljujući podršci britanskih časnika, ta je organizacija prerasla u vojnu silu koja je uspjela provesti planove cionističkog vojnog osvajanja Palestine i etničkog čišćenja tamošnjeg autohtonog stanovništva. Posebna zasluga za ovaj preobražaj pripada britanskom časniku Ordeu Wingateu. Upravo je on pridonio tome da cionistički čelnici shvate da je ideja o židovskoj državi usko povezana s militarizmom i vojskom, ne samo kako bi se zaštitio sve veći broj židovskih kolonija u Palestini već i – a što je presudnije – stoga što će agresija učinkovito odvratiti eventualni otpor lokalnog stanovništva. Wingate je također pripadnike Hagane priključio pripadnicima britanskih snaga tijekom Arapskog ustanka (1936-39) i omogućio Židovima da vježbaju taktike kojima ih je učio u ruralnim područjima te da nauče što podrazumijeva "kaznena misija" u arapsko selo. Hagana je vrijedno vojno iskustvo stekla i u drugom svjetskom ratu budući da se dosta njenih pripadnika doborovoljno javilo i borilo na britanskoj strani. Oni koji su ostali u Palestini nastavili su nadzirati i infiltrirati se u otprilike 1200 palestinskih sela koja su se na tom području nalazila stotinama godina.


U napadima na arapska sela i kaznenim racijama cionisti su stekli iskustvo, no to nije bilo dovoljno; ono što je bilo potrebno bilo je sustavno planiranje. 1940. godine Ben-Zion Luria, mladi povjesničar s Hebrejskog sveučilišta, zaposlen u obrazovnom odjelu Židovske agencije (Jewish Agency), cionističkog upravnog tijela u Palestini, ponudio je važan prijedlog. On je ukazao na korisnost detaljnog registra svih arapskih sela i predložio da Židovski nacionalni fond (Jewish National Fund – JNF) sastavi takav popis. ...

Osnovan 1901. na petom Cionističkom kongresu, Židovski nacionalni fond (JNF) bio je glavno sredstvo u kolonizaciji Palestine. Ovu je agenciju cionistički pokret koristio kako bi kupio palestinsku zemlju na koju je potom naseljavao židovske imigrante, pokrenuvši tako cionizaciju Palestine tijekom godina britanskog mandata. Od samog početka, fond je zamišljen kao "čuvar" zemlje koje su se u Palestini domogli cionisti, a zemlju čuva za židovski narod. Ovu je ulogu Židovski nacionalni fond zadržao i nakon nastanka Izraela, te se uz svoj prvobitni zadatak posvetio i nekim drugim misijama.

Unatoč velikim naporima koje je ulagao, JNF nije ni izbliza postigao svoje ciljeve što se tiče zaposjedanja zemlje. Raspoloživa financijska sredstva bila su ograničena, palestinski otpor žestok, a Britanija je postrožila svoju politiku. Rezultat svega toga bio je da je do kraja britanskog mandata u Palestini 1948. cionistički pokret uspio kupiti tek 5,8 % zemlje u Palestini. Stoga se Yossef Weitz, voditelj Odjela za naseljavanje u JNF-u i vodeći cionistički kolonijalist, oduševio kad je čuo za Lurijine Spise o selima, i odmah predložio da oni postanu "nacionalni projekt".

Svi sudionici postali su vatreni zagovarači te zamisli. Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, povjesničar i istaknuti član cionističkog vodstva (koji je kasnije postao drugi izraelski predsjednik) pisao je Mosheu Shertocku, voditelju političkog odjela u Židovskoj agenciji (koji je kasnije postao izraelski premijer), da osim topografskog bilježenja položaja i izgleda sela, projekt mora uključivati i prikaz "hebrejskog podrijetla" svakog sela. Nadalje, Hagani je bilo važno da zna koja su sela relativno novija, budući da su neka sagrađena "tek" za vrijeme egipatske okupacije Palestine 1830-ih godina.

No, glavni poduhvat bila je izrada karti sela, te je u tu svrhu unovačen topograf s Hebrejskog sveučilišta koji je radio u Odjelu za kartografiju u vladi britanskog mandata. ... Najbolji profesionalni fotografi također su pozvani da se priključe ovoj inicijativi. Unovačeni su i Yitzhak Shefer iz Tel Aviva i Margot Sadeh, supruga Yitzhaka Sadeha, zapovjednika Palmaha (specijalnih postrojbi Hagane). Filmski laboratorij nalazio se u Margotinoj kući, a tvrtka za navodnjavanje bila mu je paravan. ... 1947. cijeli se ovaj kartografski odjel preselio u glavni stožer Hagane u Tel Avivu.

Konačni rezultat zajedničkih topografskih i orijentalističkih napora bila je bogata građa detaljnih spisa postupno izrađenih za svako od palestinskih sela. Potkraj 1940-tih "arhiva" je bila gotovo potpuna. Precizni detalji bilježili su se o topografskoj lokaciji svakog sela, pristupnim cestama, kvaliteti zemlje, izvorima vode, glavnim izvorima prihoda, društveno-političkom sastavu sela, vjerskoj pripadnosti, imenima poglavara sela, povezanosti sela s drugim selima, pojedinačnoj dobi muškaraca (16-50) i brojnim drugim stvarima. Važna kategorija bio je pokazatelj "neprijateljstva" (prema cionističkom projektu, to jest) koji se određivao prema razini sudjelovanja sela u Arapskom ustanku 1936-39. Materijal je uključivao popis imena svih koji su bili upleteni u pobunu i popis obitelji koje su u sukobu s Britancima izgubile nekog od svojih članova. Posebna se pozornost pridavala ljudima za koje se tvrdilo da su ubili Židove. ...


Unovačenje Ezre Danina uvelike je povisilo razinu učinkovitosti obavijesnog rada i organizacije spisa o selima. Nakon 1943. spisi za svako selo uključuju detaljan opis domaćinstava, obrađenost zemlje, broj stabala na plantažama, kvalitetu svakog voćnjaka (čak i pojedinačnih voćaka!), prosječnu površinu zemlje u vlasništvu jedne obitelji, broj automobila, imena vlasnika trgovina, radnika u radionicama, imena obrtnika i njihovih vještina. Kasnije su dodane precizne pojedinosti o svakom klanu i njegovoj političkoj pripadnosti, društvenoj stratifikaciji između uglednika i običnih seljaka, te imena zaposlenika u javnim službama vlade britanskog mandata. ... 1945. pojavljuju se dodatni detalji, poput opisa seoskih džamija, imena njihovih imama (uz napomene npr. "on je običan čovjek"), pa čak i detaljni opisi unutrašnjosti domova dostojanstvenika. Nije iznenađujuće da su ti podaci, kako se približavao kraj britanske vladavine, postajali sve eksplicitnije orijentirani na vojnu komponentu: broj stražara u svakom selu (u većini sela ih uopće nije bilo) i količina te kvaliteta oružja kojim su seljani raspolagali (obično se radilo o zastarijelom oružju ili ga uopće nije bilo).

Danin je unovačio njemačkog Židova po imenu Yaacov Shimoni, koji će kasnije postati jedan od vodećih izraelskih orijentalista, i postavio ga da vodi "specijalne projekte" u selima, to se posebno odnosilo na nadziranje rada doušnika. ... S Daninom i Shimonijem radili su i Yehoshua Palmon i Tuvia Lishanski, koji su odigrali aktivnu ulogu u pripremi etničkog čišćenja Palestine. Lishanski je već 1940-ih organizirala kampanje nasilnog izbacivanja stanara sa zemlje koju je Židovski nacionalni fond kupio od prisutnih ili odsutnih vlasnika.


Posljednje osvježavanje podataka u spisima o selima provedeno je 1947. Bilo je usredotočeno na sastavljanje popisa "traženih" osoba u svakom selu. 1948. židovske trupe služile su se tim popisima za operacije potraga i uhićenja koje su provodile kad bi okupirale neko od sela. To jest, muškarci u selu bili bi postrojeni u red i oni čija imena su se nalazila na popisima bili bi identificirani, često od strane doušnika koji ih je sam bio prijavio kao tražene, no koji je sad preko glave imao platnenu vreću s rupama za oči kako ga ne bi prepoznali. Muškarci koji su na ovaj način izdvojeni iz reda često su bili strijeljani na licu mjesta. ... Spisi iz 1947. pokazuju da su sela od otprilike 1500 stanovnika obično imala po 20-30 takvih osumnjičenika. ...

Yigael Yadin sjeća se da je upravo to precizno i detaljno poznavanje svakog palestinskog sela omogućilo cionističkom vojnom zapovjedištvu da u studenom 1947. s pouzdanjem zaključi "da među palestinskim Arapima ne postoji nitko tko bi ih mogao dobro organizirati." Jedini ozbiljan problem predstavljali su Britanci: "Da nije bilo Britanaca, mogli smo arapsku pobunu [protivljenje UN-ovoj rezoluciji o podjeli Palestine iz 1947] ugušiti za mjesec dana."


Kako se drugi svjetski rat bližio kraju, cionistički pokret stekao je mnogo jasniju opću predodžbu o tome kako da ostvari san o državi. Do tada je već bilo jasno da Palestinci nisu predstavljali stvarnu prepreku cionističkim planovima. Istina, još uvijek su činili veliku većinu u toj zemlji, te su kao takvi predstavljali demografski problem, no nisu bili nikakva vojna prijetnja. Ključni čimbenik bilo je to što su Britanci već u potpunosti uništili palestinsko vodstvo i obranu 1939. kad su ugušili arapski ustanak iz 1936-39, te su time cionističkom vodstvu dali dovoljno vremena da pripremi svoje slijedeće poteze. Cionističko vodstvo bilo je također svjesno mlake pozicije koje su arapske zemlje zauzimale po pitanju Palestine. Stoga, kad je opasnost od nacističke invazije Palestine uklonjena, cionistički vođe bili su svjesni da je jedina prepreka na putu da zauzmu zemlju britansko prisustvo.

... krajem rata, a posebno budući da je posljeratna laburistička vlada u Britaniji tražila demokratsko rješenje za Palestinu (što bi značilo propast cionističkog projekta budući da je 75% stanovništva bilo arapsko), postalo je jasno da Britanija mora otići. U Palestini je nakon rata ostalo oko 100 000 britanskih vojnika, koji su u zemlji s manje od 2 000 000 stanovnika predstavljali silu, čak i kad je Britanija smanjila broj trupa nakon židovskog terorističkog napada na hotel Kralja Davida. Zbog toga je Ben-Gurion zaključio da je bolje prihvatiti manje od 100% onoga što se 1942. tražilo Biltmore programom i da bi i malo manja država dostajala kako bi cionistički pokret ostvario svoje snove i ambicije.

O ovom je pitanju pokret raspravljao posljednjih dana mjeseca kolovoza 1946. kad je Ben-Gurion okupio vodstvo cionističkog pokreta u hotelu Royal Monsue u Parizu. Ben-Gurion je skupu rekao da je 80 do 90 posto mandata Palestine dovoljno da se stvori država, uz uvjet da se osigura premoć Židova. "Tražit ćemo velik komad Palestine" rekao je prisutnima. Nekoliko mjeseci kasnije Židovska agencija prevela je Ben-Gurionove riječi "velik komad Palestine" u kartu koja je podijeljena svima koje se smatralo važnima u odlučivanju o budućnosti Palestine. Zanimljivo je da se karta Židovske agencije, koja je prikazivala veći teritorij od karte koju je UN predložio 1947, skoro do posljednje točke podudara s kartom Izraela koja je nastala kao rezultat sukoba 1948-49: odnosno kartom Izraela prije 1967, to jest, karta prikazuje Palestinu bez Zapadne Obale i Pojasa Gaze.

Glavno pitanje na dnevnom redu cionista 1946, borba protiv Britanaca, rješilo se kad su Britanci u veljači 1947. odlučili napustiti Palestinu i prebaciti taj problem na UN. ...

Ben-Gurion je već do kraja 1946, i prije britanske odluke, shvatio da Britanci odlaze, te je zajedno s pomoćnicima počeo razrađivati opću strategiju koja bi se mogla provesti protiv palestinskog stanovništva čim Britanci odu. Ta je strategija postala Plan C, ili Gimel na hebrejskom. Plan C bio je revidirana verzija dva prijašnja plana. Plan A još se nazivao i "Elimelechov plan" po Elimelechu Avniru, zapovjedniku Hagane u Tel Avivu, koji je 1937, na Ben-Gurionov zahtjev, sastavio upute za zauzimanje Palestine u slučaju britanskog povlačenja. Plan B sastavljen je 1946. Ubrzo nakon toga ta su dva plana spojena u Plan C.

Poput planova A i B, cilj Plana C bio je pripremiti vojne snage židovske zajednice za ofenzivne kampanje koje će se voditi protiv ruralnih i urbanih dijelova Palestine nakon odlaska Britanaca. Svrha takvih akcija bila bi da se palestinskog stanovništvo "odvrati" od napada na židovska naselja i odmazda za napade na židovske kuće, ceste i prometna sredstva. U Planu C jasno je ispisano što bi kaznene akcije ove vrste trebale podrazumijevati:

Napadi na političko vodstvo.
Napadi na huškače i one koji im pružaju financijsku podršku.
Napadi na Arape koji su djelovali protiv Židova.
Napadi na više arapske časnike i dužnosnike [iz mandatnog sistema]
Nanijeti štetu palestinskom prometu.
Oštetiti izvore sredstava za život i vitalne ekonomske mete (bunare s vodom, mlinove, itd.).
Napadi na sela, četvrti koji bi mogli biti od pomoći pri budućim napadima.
Napadi na klubove, kavane, okupljališta, itd.

U Planu C navodi se da se podaci potrebni za uspješnu provedbu ovih akcija mogu pronaći u spisima o selima: popisi vođa, aktivista, "potencijalnih ljudskih meta", precizan raspored i izgled sela, i tako dalje.

Međutim, ovaj plan nije sadržavao operativne podrobnosti, te je za nekoliko mjeseci izrađen novi plan, Plan D (Dalet). Ovaj je plan zapečatio sudbinu Palestinaca koji su se nalazili na teritoriju koji su cionistički vođe zamislili da bude teritorij buduće židovske države. Za razliku od Plana C, ovaj je plan sadržavao direktne bilješke kako o geografskim parametrima buduće židovske države (onih 78% prikazanih na karti Židovske agencije iz 1946.) tako i o sudbini jednog milijuna Palestinaca koji su živjeli na tom prostoru:
Te se operacije mogu provesti na slijedeći način: bilo uništavanjem sela (njihovim paljenjem, dizanjem u zrak, te miniranjem preostalih ruševina) i posebno onih naseljenih središta koja je teško trajno nadzirati; bilo pokretanjem operacija češljanja i nadzora prema slijedećim naputcima: opkoliti sela, izvršiti pretrese u njima. U slučaju pružanja otpora, naoružane snage treba uništiti, a stanovništvo protjerati izvan granica države.

Niti jedno selo smješteno unutar područja za koje su planirane operacije nije bilo izuzeto od ovih naredbi, bilo zbog svog položaja, bilo stoga što se očekivalo da će pružati otpor. To je bio veliki plan za protjerivanje stanovnika iz svih sela ruralne Palestine. Slične upute izdane su za akcije usmjerene protiv palestinskih urbanih središta.

Naredbe koje su stizale do jedinica na terenu bile su određenije. Zemlja je bila podjeljena na zone prema broju brigada, pri čemu su 4 prvobitne brigade Hagane pretvorene u 12 brigada, kako bi se olakšala provedba plana. Zapovjednik svake brigade dobio je popis sela ili četvrti u svojoj zoni koje je morao okupirati, uništiti, a njihove stanovnike protjerati, sve to uz točne datume. Neki zapovjednici prerevno su izvršavali naredbe, dodajući nove lokacije kako su operacije napredovale. Neke su se naredbe pak pokazale preambicioznima i nisu se mogle izvršiti u očekivanom roku. ... No, to su bile iznimke. Uglavnom se uništavanje sela i urbanih četvrti, te uklanjanje njihovih stanovnika odvijalo prema planu. A do trenutka kad je izdana izravna zapovijed u ožujku, 30 sela već je bilo izbrisano s lica zemlje.

Nekoliko dana nakon što je Plan D pretipkan, podijelili su ga zapovjednicima dvanaestak brigada od kojih se tada sastojala Hagana. Svaki zapovjednik zaprimio je uz popis detaljan opis sela na njegovom operativnom području i njihovu skorašnju sudbinu – okupacija, uništenje, te protjerivanje. Izraelski dokumenti koje je u kasnim 1990-tim objavila izraelska vojska jasno pokazuju da je, suprotno tvrdnjama povjesničara poput Benny Morrisa, Plan Dalet zapovjednicima brigada podijeljen ne kao nejasni naputak, već kao jasno određene operativne zapovijedi koje je trebalo sprovesti u djelo.

Za razliku od općeg nacrta koji su dobili politički čelnici, instrukcije i popisi sela koji su poslani vojnim zapovjednicima nisu sadržavali nikakva ograničenja što se tiče načina na koji treba provesti uništenje i protjerivanje. Nije bilo odbredbi o tome kako bi sela mogla izbjeći svoju sudbinu, na primjer bezuvjetnom predajom kako je obećavao opći dokument. Postojala je još jedna razlika između nacrta koji je podijeljen političarima i onog kojeg su primili vojni zapovjednici: u službenoj verziji stajalo je da se provedba plana ne pokreće do trenutka prestanka britanskog mandata, dok je časnicima na terenu naređeno da ga počnu provoditi nekoliko dana nakon što je plan usvojen. Ova dihotomija tipična je za vezu koja u Izraelu postoji između vojske i političara i održala se sve do danas – vojska vrlo često krivo obavještava političare o svojim pravim namjerama, kao što je to bio slučaj s Moshe Dayanom 1956, Arielom Sharonom 1982. i Shaulom Mofazom 2000.

Ono što je zajedničko političkoj verziji Plana Dalet i uputama koje je dobila vojska je svrha plana.  ... (nastavlja se u drugom postu zbog duljine teksta)

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